What Is Feed

Feed is a general term for food that is raised for animals. General feed mainly refers to the food of animals raised in agriculture or animal husbandry. The feed includes soybean, soybean meal, corn, fish meal, amino acid, miscellaneous meal, whey powder, oil, meat and bone meal, grain, feed additives and other more than ten varieties of feed raw materials.


The feed industry is an emerging industry, and its growth and development process is synchronized with the process of reform and opening up. According to the level of meeting the nutritional needs of animals, feed products can be divided into:

Full-price compound feed. Contains feeds that meet the needs of animals for protein, energy, macrominerals, trace minerals, vitamins and various nutritional and non-nutritive additives. Can be fed directly to animals.

Concentrated feed. Usually, the energy feeds such as corn, wheat, bran, etc. in the feed formula account for more than 50% of the formula, and these raw materials are mostly self-produced or purchased by the aquaculture industry. Feed products with energy raw materials, the breeders buy back such products and mix them with self-produced or self-purchased energy raw materials to produce relatively low-cost full-price compound feeds.

Premixed feed. To further meet the needs of mass breeders for refined feeding and cost reduction, feed producers have designed premixed feed products, which mainly contain minerals, vitamins, various nutritional and non-nutritive additives. Such products are characterized by low addition ratio, high nutrient concentration, difficult mixing, high product value, high technical content, and high storage requirements.

New Feed-Sophora Leaf Feed

The use of leaves as feed has a long history in China. The classical document “Shen Nong’s Materia Medica” has records that “pigs fed with Tong Ye are three times larger and easier to raise”. China is rich in tree resources, and the leaves are rich in protein, minerals and vitamins. The leaves of more than 100 kinds of trees can be used as feed; the leaves can be fed fresh, or stored in cellars and tanks after harvesting, dried and crushed. After that, it can also be fed to livestock and poultry in the winter and spring withered periods.

Sophora japonica leaves contain 20.82% crude protein, 2.7% crude fat, 19.48% crude fiber, 31.69% nitrogen-free extract, 3.79% calcium, 0.03% phosphorus, 0.96% lysine and various vitamins, especially rich in carotene and vitamin E2; the protein content of 2 kg of locust leaf powder is equivalent to 1 kg of bean cake. Adding 10-15% Sophora japonica leaf powder to pig feed can replace fish meal feed; adding 5% Sophora japonica leaf powder to chicken feed can improve egg production and increase egg yolk pigment.

Identification method


The adulterated feed is generally finely milled, the components cannot be seen, the color is darker or lighter, and the high moisture content often leads to deliquescence, mildew, moth-eaten, lumpy, sometimes mixed with a large amount of sand or a large amount of low-cost feed, such as the amount of shellfish powder in the batch reaches 20%. If the above phenomenon occurs, it is generally poor quality feed.

Sensory identification

Taste identification: You can put a little feed into your mouth to lick and bite, the high-quality feed tastes good, and the inferior feed has a strange taste.

Smell identification: whether the feed has mildew, rancidity, ammonia odor, coke odor, etc., if there is, it is inferior feed.

Tactile identification: Twist the feed with your fingers, and judge the quality of the feed by touching the particle size, hardness, viscosity, etc. of the feed.

Screening and identification

20kg to 90kg of growing-finishing pig feed can all pass through a round-hole sieve with an aperture of 2.5 mm, and the sieve with a 2-mm aperture should not exceed 15% of the material on the sieve. The method of growing and fattening pig feed; the feed of laying hens and broiler chickens over 4 weeks old can pass through a 2.5 mm round-hole sieve, and the sieve of a round-hole sieve with an aperture of 2 mm shall not exceed 15%. By the above method, the particle size of the mixed foreign matter and the raw material can be measured.

The above method is only a general feed identification method. For further identification, the nutrient composition and content of the feed must be tested by instrument analysis and equipment to see if it meets the specified technical indicators.

Feed factor

That is the weight of the feed required for a pound of fish to gain weight. If a pound of fish needs 0.5kg of feed, then the bait coefficient is 1.

A low coefficient means that your feed is good, but the price of your feed is much higher. The bait coefficient for fish farming will not exceed 2, generally 1.2-1.6, but a particularly good feed can be 0.8.


By Ingredient

Generally, only plant feeds are called feeds, and these feeds include grasses, various grains, tubers, roots, etc. These feeds can be roughly divided into:

High-starch feed

These feeds consist mainly of starch-rich grains, seeds and roots or tubers. Such as various grains, potatoes, wheat, barley, beans, etc. These feeds provide energy mainly through polysaccharides with little protein. They are suitable for ruminants, poultry and pigs, but feeds with too much starch are not suitable for horses.

Oily feed

These feeds consist of oily seeds (rapeseed, soybean, sunflower, peanut, cottonseed), etc. The energy source of these feeds is mainly lipids, so their energy density is higher than that of starchy feeds. These feeds are also lower in protein. Since these oils also have industrial uses, the popularity of such feeds is not high.

The residue left after industrial oil extraction still contains a relatively high oil content. Such slag can also be used as feed, which is especially good for ruminants and is also widely used.

Sugary feed

These feeds are mainly straw feed or pellet feed based on “sweet sorghum straw”. The sugar content of sweet sorghum straw is 18%-23%, and the animal palatability is very good.

Protein-containing feed

These feeds are mainly vegetable protein feeds based on protein mulberry. The vegetable protein of protein mulberry reaches 28%-36% and is rich in 18 kinds of amino acids, which is the best raw material to replace imported vegetable protein.

Green feed

In these feeds, the whole plant is fed, such as grass, corn, grain, etc. These feeds contain a lot of very nutritious carbohydrates. For example, grass mainly contains carbohydrates and 15% to 25% protein, while corn contains more starch (about 20%-40%) and less than 10% protein. Green fodder can be fed fresh or stored after drying. They are more suitable for ruminants, horses and waterfowl. Generally not used to feed pigs.

Green fodder preserved after fermentation is called silage.

Other feed

In addition to the feeds mentioned above, many other types of feeds can come directly from nature (such as fishmeal) or industrial replicas (such as rice bran, distiller grains, leftovers, etc. Different livestock uses different feeds, but These feeds are especially suitable for ruminants.

Classification by main nutrients

  1. Compound feed
  2. concentrated feed
  3. premix
  4. functional feed

By raw material

Roughage refers to a type of feed with a crude fiber content of more than 18% in dry matter, mainly including hay, straw, agricultural and sideline products, and slag and leaves with a crude fiber content of more than 18% in dry matter.

Green feed refers to a type of feed with a natural moisture content of more than 60%, including grasses, leafy vegetables, non-starchy rhizomes and fruits, aquatic plants, etc. Crude protein and crude fiber content after drying are not considered.

Silage is silage made from fresh natural plant feed and silage with an appropriate amount of bran or other additives, including semi-dry silage with a moisture content of 45% to 55%.

Energy feed refers to a type of feed with a crude fiber content of less than 18% and a crude protein content of less than 20% in dry matter, mainly including cereals, brans, starchy roots, stems, melons and fruits, oils, and grass seeds. tree species, etc.

Protein supplements refer to a class of feeds with a crude fiber content of less than 18% and a crude protein content of more than 20% in dry matter, mainly including vegetable protein feeds, animal protein feeds, and single-cell protein feeds.

Mineral feeds include industrial synthetic or natural single mineral feeds, multi-mineral mixed mineral feeds, and mineral additive premixes with carriers or diluents.

Vitamin feed refers to synthetic or purified single vitamins or multivitamins but does not include natural feeds with a high vitamin content.

Additives refer to various non-nutritive additive raw materials and their formulated products that are used to strengthen the feeding effect and are beneficial to the production and storage of compound feeds. Such as various antibiotics, antioxidants, antifungal agents, binders, colorants, flavor enhancers, and health care and metabolic regulation drugs.

Feeding standard

The concept of feeding standards

Feeding standards are based on the experience accumulated in animal husbandry production practice, combined with material and energy metabolism experiments and feeding experiments, to scientifically stipulate the energy that should be given to each animal of different types, genders, ages, physiological states, production purposes and levels every day. And the quantity of various nutrients, this quantity specified for livestock and poultry is called feed standard or called nutrient requirement. The requirements of various nutrients specified in the feeding standards are reflected by the intake of various feeds by livestock and poultry. Therefore, in feeding practice, it is necessary to calculate the mixing ratio of various feeds according to the characteristics, sources, prices and nutrient content of various feeds, that is, to formulate a balanced and full-price ration. Therefore, the feed standards are listed in tabular form. Poultry requirements for various nutrients. For the convenience of use, the feeding standard for livestock and poultry is attached with a table of feed ingredients and nutritional value for livestock. In addition, when necessary, the formula of livestock and poultry bent-type diet can also be attached for reference of practical application.

Because the breeding standard is put forward through scientific experiments and summarizing practice, it has a certain scientific nature and is an important basis for the implementation of scientific animal raising. In the practice of animal husbandry, only the correct application of feeding standards, the rational development and utilization of feed resources, the formulation of scientific feed formulas, and the production of full-price and combined feed, so that livestock and poultry can obtain sufficient amounts of nutrients, and scientific feeding can be achieved. Under the premise of ensuring the health of livestock and poultry, it can give full play to its production performance, improve feed utilization, and reduce production costs. In addition, feeding standards are also a technical guideline, which is an indispensable basis for formulating feeding quotas, feed production and supply plans for livestock farms. Therefore, feeding standards play a very important role in livestock and poultry breeding practices and formula design.

Knowledge of the application of feeding standards

Feeding standards are scientific and representative to a certain extent, but for any kind of feeding standard, it should not be regarded as a dogma. This is because:

The indicators stipulated in the breeding standards are not eternal but are constantly changing. With the development of animal and breeding science, the improvement and improvement of the quality of livestock and poultry varieties, the improvement of production levels, the breeding standards are also changing. It is continually revised, fleshed out and refined.

Feeding standards are biological type standards, which are limited, regional. Therefore, the application should be adjusted appropriately according to the situation of the habitat unit, the feeding effect, and the response of livestock. To keep the feeding standard closer to reality.

The feeding standard is formulated under certain conditions. The quantity of various nutrients it stipulates is based on the average data of many experimental research results. It is only a generalized average and cannot be completely consistent with each group, Therefore, the application must be adapted to local conditions and applied flexibly. It is necessary to consider the ecological environment, technical level, feeding conditions and other conditions of the herd, and deviate from the actual situation.

The feeding standard should be the standard that each head (only) should eat various nutrients per day, but most livestock and poultry are raised in groups, and for the convenience of management, a % or content per kilogram of feed is adopted. Nutrient needs are expressed as kilocalories (kilojoules) of energy per kilogram. In this way, the percentage of nutrients in the compound feed is multiplied by the daily intake to obtain the nutrients required for each day. Since livestock and poultry can self-regulate their energy needs (livestock and poultry feed on energy), they can obtain the same amount of energy by eating food with a certain range of energy levels under the free-feeding method. and other nutrients. Therefore, the dietary energy concentration can vary between 2.6-2.9 Mcal/kg ME in chickens and between 2.9-3.4 Mcal/kg ME in pigs. As long as they are not limited by volume, livestock and poultry can obtain the energy and various nutrients they need every day, but the feed intake varies.

In short, it is necessary to see the scientific nature of the feeding standard and use it as an important basis for scientifically raising livestock to formulate rations, but also to see its relative rationality, flexible application, and scientific experiments and production practice experience. Based on revision, it is increasingly perfect.

Similarly, the scientificity and flexibility of application should also be paid attention to on the feed composition table and its nutritional value. Because although the numbers in the feed sub-table are obtained through scientific analysis, it is not possible to list all the feeds with high nutrient content and low nutrient content in the feed composition table, especially in the commonly used feed composition table. , but only centered numbers are listed. For example, the protein content of corn is in the range of 7%-9%, but most are between 8.2%-8.9%, while the figure listed in the feed composition table is 8.6%. And so on, it’s obvious.

Chicken feed

According to the breed, age, growth and development stage and egg production rate of different chickens, refer to the corresponding range of indicators in the breeding standard and combine their actual situation and practical experience to coordinate the diet.

Try to choose the feed that is easily available locally and at a low price. For some feed that is not necessary and not necessary in the local area, it is necessary to strictly select the low-priced and non-adulterated place to buy it, to reduce the cost of feeding food.

In formula ration, the diversification of feed, the complementary effect of nutrients, comprehensive nutrition, and the reduction of the number of high-priced additives should be considered. And pay attention to the selection of fresh, mildew-free, clean and palatable diets with low crude fiber content.

After the combination of diets is completed, the differences in each nutrient composition should be roughly calculated, and the dosage of additives should be considered. It is necessary to prevent waste caused by repeated additions and to maintain sufficient amounts to maintain nutritional balance.

The combination of the diet should be relatively stable. If it changes due to needs, it must be changed slowly. The sudden change of the diet will cause indigestion and affect the growth of the chicken.


Appropriate feeding standards and feed composition table should be selected

You can refer to the existing breeding standards. If there are regional standards, you can use the regional standards. If there is no domestic standard for livestock and poultry breeds, you can also refer to foreign standards, and reflect the growth, development and production performance of livestock and poultry in breeding practice as appropriate. Correction, flexible use.

Diversification of feed is required, attention to feeding palatability and toxic substances

A variety of feeds should be reasonably matched to play the complementary role of various nutrients and improve the utilization rate and nutritional value of the feed.

Control the crude fiber content and pay attention to the total volume of the diet

The dietary fiber should be controlled between 2% and 5% for chickens, 4% for suckling pigs, 8% for growing and finishing pigs, and less than 12% for breeding pigs. A certain amount of dry matter must be contained in the compound feed grain, so that livestock and poultry can not only eat, but also eat enough, and can meet their nutritional needs.

The ration should be of high quality and low price and be competitive in the market

It is necessary to consider user psychology and improve product quality. It is necessary to focus on publicizing economic benefits, with appropriate emphasis on input and output, so that “maintenance” needs to be kept below one-third of the daily nutrient intake.


An ideal diet is a measure of the degree to which maximum productivity is obtained for the lowest value. That is, the value per unit of product is the final determinant of what must be the best diet. Awareness of this enables formulation design to achieve a more ideal situation.

To match a low-cost and high-efficiency diet, the following steps should be followed:

  1. Identify and enumerate the nutritional requirements or nutrient supply for the animals on which they are fed.
  2. Determine what feed can be used and find out its nutrient composition and nutritional value in the feed composition table.
  3. Determine the cost of feed composition to be considered.
  4. Consider the limitations and limits of the feed used.
  5. Calculate the most economical feed formula.


There are many kinds of diet combination methods, such as block method, simultaneous equation method, matrix method, trial and error method, computer method (program method). Although sometimes the calculation of each method is confusing, when done correctly, the result is close to providing a formula that economically (minimum cost) provides the right balance of nutrients in the ideal proportions and meets the requirements. But more importantly, it is to obtain the maximum net profit (net profit).

Design of feed formula

When designing a feed formula, first divide the feed into three categories

Which is:

  1. Energy feed: corn, bran (secondary flour);
  2. Protein feed: soybean meal (meal), cottonseed meal, rapeseed meal, fish meal, blood and bone meal, etc.;
  3. Mineral dimensional supplements: including phosphorus, calcium and amino acids or premix.

Energy feed generally accounts for 50%-70% in the formula of pigs and poultry, protein feed generally accounts for 20%-35% (except for pregnant pigs), and mineral supplementary feed is 3%-12%. The proportions of the three types of feed vary with animal species and different growth stages. The simplest formula is corn + soybean cake (meal) + mineral premix (including health medicine). But the price is high, and it is difficult for ordinary producers to adopt. If you want to reduce the cost of feed, you can use the cheap bran and secondary flour commonly used in the local area to replace corn or use cottonseed meal, rapeseed meal, etc. to replace the soybean meal (meal) feed, but the energy concentration and crude protein should be kept to a minimum. content. If artificially synthesized amino acids are to be added to the formula to balance the amino acids in the diet, the crude fiber protein should be reduced by two percent units in the formula to reduce the use of more expensive protein feeds such as soybean cake (meal), fish meal, etc. thereby reducing costs.

Fishmeal free diet recipe

Fish meal is a good protein feed in livestock and poultry diets. It has a high protein level, high methionine content and good palatability, and is very popular among breeders.

However, since the 1980s, due to the rising price of fishmeal, the shortage of imported fishmeal, and the unstable quality of domestic fishmeal, the main problems are: the protein content is very different, it is difficult to distinguish fake adulterated products, and some places are fed with mildew. An excessive fish meal leads to gizzard erosion or poisoning and salmonellosis, resulting in unnecessary losses. Therefore, currently domestic and some major breeding farms are avoiding the use of fishmeal.

The main source of protein for the formulation of fishmeal-free diets is soybean meal (meal). If soy meal (meal) is used to replace fish meal, the following issues should be noted:

  1. The urease activity in soybean cake (meal) should meet the feeding standard (<0.5).
  2. Maintain the original level of protein in the formula.
  3. Appropriately add methionine and lysine when necessary to make up for the lack of essential amino acids.
  4. The price of all ingredients is lower than when using fish meal.

Feed formulation with available (effective) amino acids

As we all know, the protein nutrition of pigs is essentially the nutrition of amino acids. Therefore, attention should be paid to the balance of amino acids in the preparation of feed. However, it is often found that other cakes such as cottonseed meals and rapeseed meals are used to replace common soybean cakes with the same protein content in the feed. (meal) level of feed.

Nutritionists have found that the reason for this problem is mainly due to the great difference in the utilization rate of amino acids from different protein feed sources in animals. Moreover, the utilization rate of various amino acids in the main feed of livestock and poultry has also been determined.

Therefore, some feed mills have begun to formulate feeds with available amino acids (mainly lysine and methionine). Calculate the replacement value of other cakes and soybean cakes (meal) in the diet based on the available amino acids to ensure the stability of the compound feed and the consistency of the effect.

Feed additives and feed premixes

Feed additives

It is a kind of substance that is added in a small amount in livestock and poultry feeds to correct nutritional deficiencies caused by the lack of dietary ingredients or play a special role in the growth of livestock and poultry. In a broad sense, the feed additive cocoa is Divided into four categories: vitamins/trace elements, amino acids and growth and/or benefit promoters.


It is composed of one or more different trace raw materials, such as vitamins, minerals, trace elements or medicines, which are mixed by regenerating, and they do not contain protein feed. Premixes are usually used at or below 1% in the feed.

Premix concentrate

It is composed of the above premix plus constant calcium and phosphorus. The dosage is generally 1% higher, and the dosage range can vary between 1% and 12%.


It contains protein, trace elements and other additives in a balanced proportion, and is generally added to the feed together with grains and other raw materials.

Full price feed

It must be a feed that contains all nutrients in a balanced proportion and meets the needs of various nutrient components of livestock and poultry.

The purpose of the premix is ​​to safely and accurately add small amounts of trace raw materials such as vitamins, minerals, drugs, antibiotics and other chemicals into the feed. The basic reasons for premixing and offering premixes are as follows:

  1. Evenly distribute trace raw materials in the final feed;
  2. Overcome the problem of insufficient weighing and mixing equipment;
  3. Since the amount of premix used in each ton of feed is kilograms instead of grams, the equipment of ordinary feed mills can be added;
  4. Since all trace raw materials are already contained in the premix, the trouble of weighing different trace raw materials in the feed factory is avoided;
  5. Manufacture premix in a specialized factory with special equipment and trained workers, which can serve all feed mills;
  6. Avoid using trace amounts of raw material inventory in the feed mill;
  7. Improve the turnover rate of trace raw material inventory;

There are three types of premixes used in the feed mill industry: commercial premixes, in-plant premixes and customer premixes.

The commercial premix is ​​usually produced by a drug or vitamin company with a single and trace amount of raw materials such as vitamins or drugs and a single premix mixed with a carrier. one-step dilution.

In-plant premix refers to a diluted commercial premix or a mixture consisting of a commercial premix plus other trace raw materials and diluents. In-plant premixes are generally produced by feed manufacturers themselves, but sometimes one manufacturer can supply other feed mills.

Customer premix refers to the change from the premix used in the factory. Mixtures of commercial premixes and other trace ingredients and a diluent that meet the specific needs of a feed mill or are called customer premixes.

Feed storage

Lysine is an expensive amino acid that is widely used in swine feed but is lost in large amounts due to improper pelleting and storage processes.

High-quality piglet feed is generally rich in protein, lactose, and sometimes sucrose and glucose. Lysine from protein or added crystals and reducing sugars (as described above) can combine under appropriate moist heat conditions to form indigestible components. Therefore, most piglet feeds are supplemented with higher doses of lysine to compensate for anticipated losses during pelleting and storage.

Weakening of the “Maillard reaction”

Generally speaking, when an amino acid is heated under a certain humidity to undergo a chemical reaction, a “Maillard reaction” occurs. This involves binding free amino groups (like those crystalline amino acids, unlike other amino acids, lysine has 2 such groups) to reducing sugars (like those from lactose and sucrose/dextrose). This “browning” reaction can even occur at room temperature, but the reaction rate is very slow. However, when the browning reaction is excessive (for example, in the case of improper granulation) or is not properly controlled (long storage in an environment with high temperature and humidity), protein quality will decrease.

Heat-sensitive materials that are stored for too long can be affected by this problem, triggering a second “Maillard reaction.” This issue is very important in the management of nursery feeds because conditions in commercial nursery facilities are very favorable for the Maillard reaction. Residual feed moisture also affects the degree of Maillard reaction during storage. For example, milk powder with 10% moisture content stored for 10 weeks in summer will lose 20% of lysine bioavailability. Or, in another study, when piglet feed was kept in a typical nursery for just 7 days, 10% of the total lysine in the feed was destroyed.

In addition, the adverse effects of the Maillard reaction have been demonstrated in many feed ingredients such as soybean meal, fish meal, whey meal, rapeseed meal and peanut meal. While crystalline lysine is the most sensitive amino acid, the rest of the crystalline amino acids in piglet feeds still suffer from the same problem (at lower levels). Therefore, under high temperature and humidity conditions, it will affect the quality of many raw materials.

Fresh suckling pig feed

At the farm level, producing feed for suckling pigs is the safest way to ensure the freshness and safety of the feed, allowing it to be used up before its quality deteriorates. Home mixers also ensure the possibility of small-batch feed production, which can replace a month’s worth of feed purchased at one time.

For farms that cannot prepare piglet feed on-site, purchasing feed from a reputable feed company is an effective way to ensure fresh feed. Still, there are regular laboratory tests to test for “reactive lysine,” one of which is to detect the extent of damage caused by the Maillard reaction. An easy way to do this is to avoid pellets and opt for kibble that has not undergone any heat treatment. In this way, the Maillard reaction in a cycle can be completely avoided.

Therefore, once piglet feed arrives on the farm, all bags should be stored in a low-temperature dry area to maintain their nutrition and flavor.

Feed mix ratio

Carbohydrate feed

Contains mainly starch and sugars, which can account for less than 70% of the dietary mix:

  1. Corn – one of the highest energy feeds in cereal feeds, it can account for 45%-70% of the mixture.
  2. Bran – good palatability, high protein and phosphorus content, can occupy 5%-30% of the mixture.
  3. Wheat and barley – due to the high starch and crude fiber content, the dosage should not be too much, which can account for 15%-20% of the mixture, but when using wheat enzymes, it can account for 20%-40% of the mixture.
  4. Sorghum – the taste is astringent, too much will make the chicken constipated, it can account for about 10% of the mixture.
  5. Rice bran – often used as an auxiliary material, it should not exceed 8% of the mixture.

Protein feed

This type of feed contains 30%-65% protein, which can account for 5%-30% of the mixture:

  1. Soybean cake and peanut kernel cake are the best plant protein feeds, with strong palatability and comprehensive nutrition, which can account for 10%-20% of the mixture.
  2. Cotton kernel cake – due to toxins, the dosage should not be too much, generally not more than 7% of the mixture.
  3. Fish meal – is the highest quality animal protein feed, which can account for 5%-15% of the mixture. The salt content of the fish meal should be calculated, and the salt content of the fish meal used should not exceed 0.4% of the mixture.

Green feed

The main supplementary vitamin deficiency can account for less than 30% of the mixture:

  1. All kinds of fresh green vegetables—the dosage can account for 20%-30% of the mixture.
  2. Leaves—Acacia, Amorpha and other green leaves can account for 5%-10% of the mixture.

Mineral feed

It mainly supplements the lack of minerals in the mixture, which can account for 0.3%-9% of the mixture.

  1. Bone meal—mainly supplement calcium and phosphorus, which can account for 1%-2.5% of the mixture.
  2. Shell powder – mainly to supplement the lack of calcium, which can account for 1%-7% of the mixture. It should be used more for laying hens and less for other chickens.
  3. Salt – mainly to supplement the lack of sodium in the mixture, often accounting for 0.3%-0.4% of the mixture. The salt content of fish meal should also be taken into account.
  4. Gravel – often added after the chicken is 1 month old, it can improve the utilization rate of the feed, and can account for 0.5%-1% of the mixture.

Use of oils and fats in feed

Through the investigation and statistics of pig farms, we found such a rule: the sub-pigs added with oil feed are well developed and have high disease resistance. In particular, the effect is more pronounced in sub-pigs with lower birth weights. The basic reasons why oils and fats improve feed efficiency are:

  1. The inherent characteristics of high energy, easy absorption and easy utilization of oil;
  2. For monogastric animals, oil can provide a large amount of fatty acids, especially essential amino acids, and the oil has high energy content and is easily utilized by animals;
  3. Fats can improve the energy utilization of other components of the diet. It is reported that the measured value of metabolizable energy of fats and oils is the highest when the addition amount is 5%, and the metabolizable energy value decreases when the addition amount is 10% and 15%.

Types of oils and fats

Oil and fat feed include animal oil and vegetable oil. Animal oil such as lard, tallow, fish oil, etc., has metabolizable energy of more than 33.5MJ per kilogram. Among animal oils, the unsaturated fatty acid content in lard is higher than that in tallow, and fish oil is cheaper but less expensive. Easily rancid and difficult to preserve. Vegetable oils such as rapeseed oil, cottonseed oil, corn oil, etc. have lower metabolizable energy, which is also 29.5MJ per kilogram. Generally speaking, the optimal ratio of fats and oils in sub-pig diets is 10% to 15% in the early stage and 5% to 6% in the later stage. The practice has proved that the mixed application of vegetable oil and animal oil is better than a single application, and the mixed application of vegetable oil and animal oil in a ratio of 1:1 or 2:1 is better. In our daily production, the brine oil in the braised meat shop and the lard as a by-product of the meat joint factory are all high-quality and cheap animal fats. The researchers mixed soybean oil and short-chain saturated coconut oil in the diet of 21-day-old weaned pigs. The experiment found that the pigs fed soybean oil and coconut oil had higher daily gain and feed reward.

Added amount

The study found that adding 6% animal fat to the diet of weaned pigs increased the daily weight gain by 21.4% within 5 weeks after weaning (P<0.01), and the feed conversion rate was significantly improved.

The experimental results showed that there is an interaction effect of copper and fat in the daily weight gain of weanling pigs. Adding 2.5% to 5% of animal fats to diets high in copper (250 mg/kg) can increase the weight gain of piglets within 2 to 4 weeks after weaning; adding oils and fats to diets containing 5 mg/kg copper does not work.

How to add

Direct addition: Add the fat and oil into the feed evenly in proportion. Because the oil is highly viscous, it must be heated and melted before adding, and then the powder is added from less to more, evenly mixed, and gradually enlarged and diluted. Finally, it is mixed with other parts of the remaining diet. Mix well. Do not add oil, premix and additives at the same time, to avoid the formation of small particles of oil and these additives that will affect the uniformity of the feed. The grease can be added first, and then the additives are added after thorough mixing, or the additives can be added first and then the grease is added after thorough mixing.

Adding high-oil feed after preparation: The crushed corn is prepared into a high-oil feed containing 10% or 20% of oil, and then added in an appropriate amount according to the required proportion of corn and oil to form a full-price feed.

Spray addition: The oil can be sprayed evenly on the surface of the pellet feed with a sprayer. If it is possible to produce pellet feed, 30% of the added oil can also be added to the pellet feed, and the other 70% can be sprayed on the surface of the pellet to improve palatability.

Heat sterilization

Fats should be boiled before use. One of its functions is to eliminate miscellaneous bacteria and ensure the safety of feed. Second, it is easy to mix.

Pay attention to the balance of nutrients in the diet

After the oil is added, other nutrients in the feed should be adjusted accordingly, especially to keep the protein-energy ratio unchanged, because the energy level in the diet is increased.

Feeding and storage time should not be too long

Excessive storage time or storage at high temperatures is prone to rancidity. Generally speaking, the oily feed should not be stored for more than 7 days in summer and 21 days in winter.

Antioxidants should be added to the feed

Antioxidants can be added in an amount of 200 grams per ton to prevent rancidity.

Sales rate

In the past ten years, with the increase of population and income, the food structure of residents has been greatly improved, and the demand for edible animal products has grown rapidly. Therefore, the consumption of animal food such as meat, eggs, and milk has grown rapidly. It will inevitably lead to an increase in the demand for feed.

Technological Advances and Structural Changes in Livestock Production

We can see that although the consumption of various livestock products has increased rapidly with the increase of population and per capita purchasing power, the consumption of feed grains has not shown the same growth rate. Advances in specialized and centralized feeding techniques, livestock breeding and management have greatly improved feed conversion ratios.

Price and other economic factors

The overall level and type of feed demand are mainly determined by the relationship between the price of livestock products and the price of feed. When the animal price to feed price ratio increases, production becomes profitable, resulting in an expansion of animal product production and an increase in feed consumption. Conversely, when this ratio is low or declining, livestock product production becomes uneconomical and feed demand is limited. Other economic factors refer to technical factors such as changes in feeding efficiency and changes in non-feed production costs that can moderate the impact of price factors and also cause changes in feed demand.

Other non-economic factors

Sometimes certain social or policy factors can also lead to an impact on the economy. Some unexpected social events can often lead to the stagnation or even recession of certain industries, such as the COVID-19 epidemic in early 2020. Since the outbreak and epidemic of the COVID-19 epidemic in the world, it has had a relatively large impact on the breeding industry and the feed industry.

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Sourcing Agent: Who are They? How They Work? How They Charge?

Nowadays, sourcing agents/companies play an increasingly important role in managing international supply chains. However, many small businesses are still confused about sourcing agents, especially there is ambiguous and outdated information online misleading them. Therefore, I sorted out 8 buyers’ most concerned and confused questions about sourcing agencies and gave you the most objective answers.

A sourcing agent is a person or agency that represents a buyer to source commodities, buy products that are out of the buyer’s reach. Sourcing agents/companies are often needed in international trade.

In the traditional sense of the term, a sourcing agent is only to source suppliers for his client. Indeed, the services provided by sourcing agents can include selecting the right supplier, price negotiation, following up production, quality control, product compliance & testing, shipping & logistics.etc.

It’s not said that sourcing agents/companies are due to provide the full range of services. The work scope depends on the agreement/consensus reached by both sides.

Three advantages of sourcing agents/companies

A reliable sourcing agent/company plays an important role in international trade purchasing.

a. They can find suppliers who offer a competitive price and good quality. A good sourcing agent can help you find capable and reliable manufacturers. Because a good agent/company has accumulated a lot of qualified factories’ resources already that you may not find online.

b. They can improve sourcing efficiency. A local sourcing agent/company can help you overcome barriers of culture and languages. He knows exactly what you want, and negotiate with suppliers about the details of the products, and in turn deliver the message to you in fluent English, which greatly reduces the communication cost.

c. Reduce your risk of importing from overseas. A good sourcing agent/company must be experienced in dealing with product production, quality control, compliance certifications, import and export process rules, and international shipping.

1. People who have no experience in importing

Importing from overseas involves too many complicated aspects, like sourcing the right suppliers, following up production, product testing and quality control, and dealing with shipping, etc.

If you have no experience in overseas purchasing, you can find a sourcing agent/company to help you start your first importing journey.

2. People who have multiple product categories to deal with

Selecting 2 reliable suppliers for 1 product may need you to contact 10+ suppliers. Suppose you are looking for 10 products, then you need to contact at least 100 suppliers and verify them. In this case, a sourcing agent/company can not only do the tedious job more efficiently but also consolidate all the goods you required.

3. Large retailers, supermarkets

Is it saying that a large importer with abundant funds and experiences doesn’t need a sourcing agent? Certainly not! Large enterprises also need them in order to manage their supply chains better.

Take the chain supermarkets as an example, they will need to buy thousands of product categories. It is almost impossible for them to go to each factory and purchase every product by themselves.

Retail giants such as Walmart and Target are all procured their products by sourcing agents or trading companies.

4. People who deal in special product categories

Besides daily necessities, there are some special product categories such as building materials, chemistry, medicine and so on. Take the Chinese chemistry & medicine industry as an example, it is quite difficult to find suppliers neither at the exhibition or online. So you have to entrust a sourcing agency or trading company who is specialized in the industry to help with your business.

Do you know this is an interesting question-how does a sourcing agent charge? There is no specific charge standard as there are thousands of sourcing companies and individual sourcing agents around the world. The sourcing agent fees vary greatly according to the service scope, the cooperation methods, the product category, and the amount of the order.

Many purchasing agents/companies attract customers with low service fees even free service for trial order, but the buyer will finally find that the overall procurement cost (product cost + shipping cost + time cost) is not low at all. And the buyer may receive unsatisfying goods even the agent declaim they did the quality inspection.

To give a general idea about the sourcing service fees, I introduced 4 common charging methods of sourcing agents in the following.

1. Fixed salary for each project or a certain period

Many individual sourcing agents charge a fixed salary for each product or a certain period (week/month). They usually charge less than $50 for each product. Pretty cheap, right? And you can talk to your suppliers about your products and build a business relationship directly. The disadvantage is that these agents are usually not professional, and the suppliers they find are usually not the most cost-effective ones.

Some experienced buyers prefer to hire an individual full-time sourcing agent for weeks or months, to do some simple sourcing work like finding suppliers, translating and communicating with the suppliers. If you want to import from China, you can hire a full-time China buying agent around $800 a month to work only for you.

2. No extra charge but gain from the price difference

Many individual sourcing agents or sourcing companies use this charge method. Usually in this situation, the sourcing agent can provide good suppliers with more competitive prices or better product quality, which is impossible for the buyer to find these suppliers through normal channels, like some B2B websites.

In turn, if the buyers could find their competitive prices on their own, they would never consider such sourcing agents.

3. Percentage service fee based on product value

Charging for a certain percentage of the whole order value is the most common method among sourcing agents or companies. Why? Because usually they provide other services like follow-up the production, quality control, shipping arrangement, consolidation and so on. So, they will charge a certain percentage of the value of the goods as the service fee.

In China, the common service charge is around 5-10% of the total order value. Another point, the product categories and the size of the order also greatly affect this percentage. For example, if the order is for some products with high price competition and high demand like rolled steel, or the value of the order is over $50 0,000, the service charge may be about 3% of the order value or maybe less.

Usually few sourcing companies willing to accept service fees less than 5% for the daily consumer products. It does exist some sourcing companies may try to attract you with 3% or less service fees, but you’ll end up finding that product prices are much higher than most online suppliers(like Alibaba suppliers). Or you can be delivered with poor quality goods even you get the perfect sample at the beginning.

Takeaway: No matter what the charging method is, you should evaluate whether the agent can reduce the overall procurement cost, improve the sourcing efficiency and ensure the quality of goods and so on.

You may ask me, where can I find a reliable purchasing agent? Don’t worry, I’ll show you three places to find a sourcing agent/company.

1. Google

Searching on Google is always the first thought for most people when encountering problems. In fact, Google does help in most cases, it gives useful information. If you want to find a sourcing agent in one country, such as China, you can just type in “China sourcing agent”, and there will be a list of Chinese sourcing companies in the search results.

When you are checking out one of the sourcing websites, pay attention to the content, the years of establishment, company photos, contact information, the team size, infrastructure, customer reviews and testimonials, blogs, etc. Only a professional team will invest enough money and energy to optimize its websites on Google.

2. Upwork / Fiverr

Upwork and Fiverr are freelancing websites where you can find some individual sourcing agents. Some of them are doing it as a part-time job, they will help you find a supplier and provide you with a supplier’s report. You will then need to contact the supplier and dealing with follow-up processes by yourself.

As this individual sourcing agent can pop up quickly, they can also disappear quickly. So you should be more careful with your individual agents when it comes to paying services fees issues.

3. Fairs

In addition to looking for sourcing agents online, you can also pay a visit to trade fairs. For example, if you want to import from China and get a China import agent, you can visit Canton fair, Hong Kong fair, and the Yiwu international fair, etc.

But looking for a sourcing company at a fair is more suitable for large importers, who are more likely to spend millions of dollars in purchasing every year and need to import hundreds or thousands of different types of products.

If you are just a small or medium-sized importer budget only tens of thousands of dollars in purchases per year, the suppliers on fairs may not accept your order, or they may arrange an unprofessional sourcing agent for you.

In the global market, people often take these two words as one meaning. For example, if you want to find someone sourcing for you, you can say – I need a “sourcing agent” or a “sourcing company “, it doesn’t matter. But actually, these are two different concepts.

1. Sourcing agent

A sourcing agent can be an individual sourcing agent, who can be hired as a full-time agent for you. This individual sourcing agent usually has only one or two people, they usually work at a small office or home office.

Some of them may have several years of experience working in a trading company or sourcing company. These individual sourcing agents can be found on some freelancing platforms (like fiverr, Upwork, etc.), and a few of them may have also set up their own websites on Google.

2. Sourcing company

Sourcing company, also known as sourcing agency. It is easy to understand, a sourcing company is supported by a team of expert sourcing agents and organized apartments, like sourcing, quality inspecting, warehousing, and shipping systems. They can integrate supplier resources more efficiently and can serve many different buyers at the same time.

Sourcing companies generally locate in industrial clusters. For example, most China sourcing agents/companies are located in Yiwu, Guangzhou, and Shenzhen in China.

Conclusion: Both sourcing agents and sourcing companies are essentially a link between buyers and suppliers, and it’s all about which one you prefer to choose to serve you.

Sourcing service fees vary according to the work scope you order from the agent. So make sure you have made it clear about the service scope and charges before you start cooperation, in case some potential disputes occur. That’s why I cover one chapter to introduce the service of sourcing agent/company services.

Following are the main services most sourcing agent provide:

1. Sourcing product suppliers

It is the basic service of every sourcing agent to verify and select the supplier that meets the requirements of their clients. And they will negotiate with the supplier on behalf of the buyer to get the best price and confirm the details of production.

However, some buyers may be entangled in whether the sourcing agent/company should give the supplier information to them. Some even think the agent is cheating them or making shady money by not giving the supplier information to them.

Let me explain to you here, whether the supplier information is provided to the buyer depends on the service model of the sourcing agent.

Individual sourcing agent

Some individual sourcing agents can be found on Fiverr or Upwork, who are usually paid a fixed salary (by hour/day) or can be paid a fixed commission for one project. This mode of cooperation is just like finding yourself a sourcing assistant in a foreign country.

Essentially, the buyer pays the salary to get the supplier information, so it is the obligation for the agent to provide the supplier’s contacts to his boss–the buyer and the buyers themselves will communicate with the suppliers to negotiate the price.

Sourcing company/agency

If it is a sourcing company/agency, they will not give the supplier information directly to the buyer. The following are the two core reasons.

Firstly, these quality suppliers are their accumulated resources (including those can’t be found on B2B websites), which is why you can get a competitive price from the sourcing company.

Secondly, they charge their service fees by a certain percentage of the total value of goods, that is to say, this is their profit model. (I will discuss the sourcing agent/company charge methods further in question 5 later).

Although they are not telling the buyer the factory contact information, they are willing to take the buyer to visit the factory and let the buyer have a certain understanding of the production ability of the factory. But this usually happens with larger orders. If the buyers order small value like $1,000 shoes or $1,000 hats, they are less likely to take buyers to visit the factory overseas.

2. Follow-up production, inspect the quality, and arrange shipment

After finding a suitable supplier, it’s time to arrange the production of goods. Sourcing agents/companies will help coordinate with the factory, monitoring the whole production process and make sure the factory finishes the production on time and the goods are of fine quality.

They will also provide a quality inspection service. They will cooperate with the quality inspection company to inspect the finished products and minimize the defective rate before shipment.

Then comes the last step-shipping arrangement, which requires a high level of expertise. Because apart from a bargain for the most competitive shipping prices, they will also need to inform you what documents and product certificates you should prepare for the custom.

These services are also available by most sourcing agents/companies. You can choose any part of their services based on your own situation.

3. Other services

In addition to the mainstream services mentioned above, some large professional sourcing companies also offer private label solutions, including but not limited to the following aspects:

Customize the product
Customize packaging/labels
Free product photography for eCommerce
In a word, there are good as well as bad sourcing agents in this industry. This leads to the result that many buyers afraid to try the sourcing service. Therefore, it is important to find a reliable sourcing agent for long-term cooperation and a stable supply chain.

Now finally to the part that everyone CARES about. You may have heard a lot about the dark side of sourcing agent/company, such as accept kickback or bribe from the supplier, which make the buyers are afraid to use the sourcing agent. I will now reveal the common sourcing agent tricks in the following.

Kickback and bribe from suppliers

First of all, kickbacks or bribes happen to either individual sourcing agents or sourcing companies. If the buyer and sourcing agent/company have agreed on product price and supplier information transparency at the beginning of cooperation, the agent still asks the supplier for a kickback, it becomes illegal/unethical acts.

For example, suppose now you get two equal prices from supplier A and supplier B, if the B supplier offer kickback to the sourcing agent, then the agent is likely to choose the B no matter if the product quality from B is good or not. If your sourcing agent accepts kickback, you may end up with the following situations:

The goods you received are not to meet your quality requirements, or product that is in non-compliance with the certification requirements in your market and thus illegal to import and sell.
If there is a dispute over product quality, your sourcing agent will not stand on your side or try to defend your interests for you, but more likely to excuse the supplier for various reasons.
Objectively speaking, kickback usually happens in large orders with tens of thousands of dollars. For small orders with thousands of dollars, most sourcing agents will not bother to get involved in kickback or the bribe.

The kickback phenomenon is much less now compared with 4-5 years ago, especially in the daily products industry. Because the buyers can find suppliers directly through many channels, such as B2B websites like Alibaba, Made in China, etc. They can make a comprehensive comparison on their own, and then weigh if the product price and service commission provided by the sourcing agent is reasonable.

So, a good sourcing agent/company plays an important role in your supply chain management. In addition to helping you to obtain competitive product prices, they also devote to take care of the follow-up processes, because the good service is the core competitiveness of their business model. As to some individual sourcing agents who might do a one-time business, I can’t guarantee the service quality.

Tip 1: Choose Chinese sourcing agent VS sourcing agent based in other countries (USA, UK, India, etc.)

As China is the largest consumer goods exporting country, Chinese sourcing agents account for a majority of the world’s agents. So I will divide sourcing agents into two types, China sourcing agents, and non-Chinese sourcing agents. What’re the differences between them? Which one to choose? Let’s see the pros and cons of them separately.

The pros and cons of Non-Chinese sourcing agents

How do the sourcing agents based in other countries operate? Generally, they are natives of a certain country and help buyers in their own country purchase from other Asian or Southeast Asian countries, such as China, Vietnam, India, Malaysia, etc.

They usually have their own offices in both the purchasing country and their own country. The team usually has several people, they mainly service for some large buyers.

If you are in the USA, choose a local sourcing agent and you don’t have to worry about language and culture barriers between you and the sourcing agent, the communication efficiency is improved.

If you purchase a large order, you can consider finding a sourcing agent in your own country. However, they are not very friendly to some small businesses, because their service commissions or their own profit is high.

The pros and cons of China sourcing agents

Compared with Non-Chinese sourcing agents, obviously service commission or profit of China sourcing agents is much lower. Besides, they have more professional sourcing teams and richer Chinese supplier resources than non-Chinese sourcing agents.

However, they might be unable to communicate with you as smooth as your native agents due to language differences. In addition, the Chinese sourcing industry mixed with good and bad agents, which makes it hard to distinguish the good ones.

Tip 2: Choose the sourcing agents specialized in a certain item

If you want to import a lot of different types of daily consumer products, choose a sourcing company that has already sourced a lot of daily consumer goods for previous buyers.

If you specialize in importing certain industrial products, then find the sourcing agent specialized in this industry like building materials, medical products. Because these sourcing agents must have accumulated a lot of good suppliers in this industry and can give you sound purchasing and production advice.

Tip 3: Choose the sourcing agent located close to the industry cluster

Each country has its own industrial clusters, which are groups of similar and related firms in a defined geographic area.

For example, if you want to purchase daily commodities from China, the sourcing agent of Yiwu is a good choice. And for clothes, the sourcing agent in Guangzhou will have more advantages.

Locating close to the industry cluster is convenient to contact with factories and reduce intermediate costs, like freight cost, quality supervision fees and so on. For example, If you want to purchase electronic products, the sourcing agents in Yiwu will not have better price advantage than the sourcing agent in Shenzhen.

Tip 4: Ask the sourcing agent/company if he can provide happy clients’ referrals

A good sourcing agent that provides value would have a lot of happy customers, and they will be happy and proud to provide you the happy customer contacts. So you can check out what the sourcing agent most good at-are they good at finding the best price or inspecting the product? Can they provide a good service?

Tip 5: Choose the sourcing agent with longer sourcing experience

Sourcing experience is a vital factor you should take into consideration. An individual agent who works as an agent for 10 years can be much more resourceful and more reliable than a sourcing company that only established only several months.

The number of years he has been in business is proof of his track record. This means he has continuously provided his clients with a good quality business. Other than being knowledgeable in choosing suppliers he should also be extremely capable in the areas of quality control, logistics and audit.

For instance, CX-STAR is a reliable sourcing agent company that has been in business for more than 10 years and has 30+ employees on board, along with numerous long-term partners.

Introduction of Our Services & Charges

For supporting different people’s needs in China importing business, we offered 4 plans to meet all your needs. You can first start with Free Services to start sourcing products, then choose the Pro Plan that we help you handle all things from manufacturing to shipping. If you have your suppliers but need us for quality inspection and shipping, choose Basic Plan. If you have a high requirement for photography, packaging design, full inspection, you can learn more about Extra Services.

Free Services

Free For all following services
  • Product sourcing, get quotes from suppliers.
  • Consult on project cost, manufacturing solutions.
  • Arrange product samples, customize samples.
  • Consult on import-export, compliance certifications, etc.

Pro Plan

5%~10% By paying service fee, you can enjoy all the following services
  • Follow up production.
  • Customize products and packagings.
  • Offer private-label solutions.
  • Free product photography for eCommerce.
  • Free general quality inspection.
  • Free warehouse 1 months.
  • Arrange delivery to door via courier, sea/air freight.

Basic Plan

5% By paying service fee, you can enjoy all the following services
  • Follow up production.
  • Customize products and packagings.
  • Offer private-label solutions.
  • Free product photography.
  • Free general quality inspection.
  • Free warehouse 1 month.
  • Arrange delivery to door via courier, sea/air freight.

Extra Services

Start from $20 All these services will be quoted by each inquiry
  • 1 by 1 inspection.
  • Travel to factory for inspection.
  • Hire labor in China.
  • Design packaging, labels, etc.
  • Lifestyle photography.
  • Website building and SEO support.

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Free Services (80% of clients start with this)

Want to import from China but don’t know how to start? Want to get a competitive price but don’t know which factory is reliable? Don’t worry; our Free Plan will help you out.

Firstly you need to submit an inquiry, telling us what products you want or how we can help you. Then we will assign you an agent to provide you with the following services for free.

Product Sourcing, cost evaluation: Your agent will help you search as many suppliers in China and get you the most competitive price according to your product requirements. He can also help you evaluate the total cost for mass production, shipping, and customs duty to your country.

Product Sample, Customization: Your agent helps you collect product samples from different suppliers (could be your suppliers), check the quality, and ship them to you in one box; thus, you can save a lot of shipping fees. He can also help you customize samples with your logos, requirements, making them look the same as your bulk order.

Consulting on Import, Export, Compliance: We offer free consulting for any pieces of knowledge related to import, export, compliances, certifications, etc.

Pro Plan (90% of clients choose this, instead of Basic Plan)

After the Free Plan, you probably get competitive product prices from our suppliers. Then you can enjoy our Pro Plan that your agent will handle all things from manufacturing to delivery. You can choose either to purchase from our suppliers or yours.

You can enjoy all the following services by paying a 5-10% service fee based on the product value of each order.

Production Follow-up: Sourcing suppliers for a product takes a few hours, but following up production will usually last 20-60 days. Our agent helps you coordinate with factories all the time to ensure products are made according to your requirements. This is the best value of the Pro Plan because we help you save huge time.

Customize packaging, private label solutions: For people who want to make own-brand products, your agent will assist you in making all kinds of packaging, even purchasing quantity is small. You will always get competitive packaging prices, as we have many packaging suppliers cooperated for a long time.

Free Photography: We can offer 5 white background photos of each product for free, thus you can upload them to Amazon or other E-commerce platforms directly. We help you save $100 by doing this when compared with asking a Fiverr freelancer to do it.

(Note: Lifestyle photography needs extra cost. 5 free photos are only for ordering at least $1,000 each product. For ordering $500~$1,000 for each product, only 3 photos are free. Extra white background photos charge $5 each)

General Quality Inspection: This inspection service is free for people who use our Pro or Basic Plan. We open 20-30% numbers of cartons and randomly inspect numbers in each carton. If there are defective products found, your agent will help negotiate with suppliers to fix the problem on your behalf. Or we can also hire workers to repair defects in our warehouse before shipping out of China.

By charging a 5% service fee, we can do unlimited inspection times until the defect issue is solved. Comparably, if you hire 3rd party inspection companies by yourself, they usually charge $200-$300/person/day, and they can only report problems without helping you fix them. They typically inspect minimal numbers of products of each batch unless you hire more inspectors.

Free Warehouse: Our warehouse in China can be 1 month free of use. You can take time to send more products to us, and we help you collect all products, consolidate them into one shipment for your cost. We will charge a $10/CBM/month warehousing fee from the 3rd month.

Arrange shipment: We help you ship products from China to your address in any countries, or Amazon warehouses and handle all import & export processes. You always get a competitive shipping quote from us, no matter its courier service, sea freight, or air freight.

Basic Plan (If you have your suppliers but need QC and shipping)

If you have your product suppliers but need someone in China to help you inspect the quality and arrange to ship to your country or Amazon fulfillment centers, our Basic Plan works perfectly for you. By paying a 5% service fee (minimum charge of $100), you can enjoy all the following services for free.

General Quality Inspection: We open 20-30% of cartons and randomly inspect numbers in each carton. If there are defective products found, your agent will help negotiate with suppliers to fix the problem on your behalf. Or we can also hire workers to repair defects in our warehouse before shipping out of China.

By charging a 5% service fee, we can do unlimited inspection times until the defect issue is solved. Comparably, if you hire 3rd party inspection companies by yourself, they usually charge $200-$300/person/day, and they can only report problems without helping you fix them. They typically inspect a very little number of products of each batch unless you hire more inspectors.

Free Warehouse: Our warehouse in China can be 1 month free of use. You can take time to send more products to us, and we help you collect all products, consolidate them into one shipment to save your cost. We will charge a $10/CBM/month warehousing fee from the 2nd month.

Product Shipping: We help you get a very competitive shipping price for most shipping methods, whether courier, sea freight, air freight, or train. We can help ship your products to your address or 3rd party fulfillment centers and handle importing and custom processes.

Arrange shipment: We help you ship products from China to your address in any countries, or Amazon warehouses and handle all import & export processes. You always get a competitive shipping quote from us, no matter its courier service, sea freight, or air freight.

Extra Services (Quoted case by case)

Although the services of our Pro and Basic plan can meet most people’s needs, we can still offer many extra services to make your China importing experience more convenient. All the following additional services will be quoted case by case.

1 by 1 product inspection: Our workers can help you inspect every product according to your requirement, and we only charge $5/hour. Using this service, we help you reduce the defect rate to 0, which means you won’t get any bad reviews from customers. Strongly recommend Amazon sellers.

Travel to the factory for inspection: For general review included in the Pro and Basic plan, we inspect our warehouse. If you want us to travel to the factory for inspection, you only need to pay the traveling cost. As this cost is quoted case by case, you can inquire about your agent for details. You probably get a big discount or even free.

Any labor work: Our workers can help you do all of the labor ($5/hour) like packing products, bundling products, putting FNSKU stickers, etc. Putting FNSKU starts from $0.03/each.

Warehouse in China: After the free warehouse period, we will charge a $10/CBM/month warehouse fee. Our warehouse is located in Yiwu Zhejiang, around 200km away from Ningbo or Shanghai seaport.

Graphic Design for packaging, label, etc: Our company has in-house graphic designers to help you design all kinds of packaging boxes, labels. It’s more cost-effective and efficient than you finding a designer on Fiverr. Learn more about our design works and charges.

Lifestyle Photography: If free photos in the Pro plan are not enough, our designers can help you make lifestyle photos by applying low-cost solutions. The price starts at $50. Learn more about our photograph works and charges.

Website building and SEO support: If you want customers to find you on the Internet, or you need to increase your visibility on the Internet, we can provide website building and SEO support.