Feed is a general term for food that is raised for animals. General feed mainly refers to the food of animals raised in agriculture or animal husbandry. The feed includes soybean, soybean meal, corn, fish meal, amino acid, miscellaneous meal, whey powder, oil, meat and bone meal, grain, feed additives and other more than ten varieties of feed raw materials.
The feed industry is an emerging industry, and its growth and development process is synchronized with the process of reform and opening up. According to the level of meeting the nutritional needs of animals, feed products can be divided into:
Full-price compound feed. Contains feeds that meet the needs of animals for protein, energy, macrominerals, trace minerals, vitamins and various nutritional and non-nutritive additives. Can be fed directly to animals.
Concentrated feed. Usually, the energy feeds such as corn, wheat, bran, etc. in the feed formula account for more than 50% of the formula, and these raw materials are mostly self-produced or purchased by the aquaculture industry. Feed products with energy raw materials, the breeders buy back such products and mix them with self-produced or self-purchased energy raw materials to produce relatively low-cost full-price compound feeds.
Premixed feed. To further meet the needs of mass breeders for refined feeding and cost reduction, feed producers have designed premixed feed products, which mainly contain minerals, vitamins, various nutritional and non-nutritive additives. Such products are characterized by low addition ratio, high nutrient concentration, difficult mixing, high product value, high technical content, and high storage requirements.
New Feed-Sophora Leaf Feed
The use of leaves as feed has a long history in China. The classical document “Shen Nong’s Materia Medica” has records that “pigs fed with Tong Ye are three times larger and easier to raise”. China is rich in tree resources, and the leaves are rich in protein, minerals and vitamins. The leaves of more than 100 kinds of trees can be used as feed; the leaves can be fed fresh, or stored in cellars and tanks after harvesting, dried and crushed. After that, it can also be fed to livestock and poultry in the winter and spring withered periods.
Sophora japonica leaves contain 20.82% crude protein, 2.7% crude fat, 19.48% crude fiber, 31.69% nitrogen-free extract, 3.79% calcium, 0.03% phosphorus, 0.96% lysine and various vitamins, especially rich in carotene and vitamin E2; the protein content of 2 kg of locust leaf powder is equivalent to 1 kg of bean cake. Adding 10-15% Sophora japonica leaf powder to pig feed can replace fish meal feed; adding 5% Sophora japonica leaf powder to chicken feed can improve egg production and increase egg yolk pigment.
The adulterated feed is generally finely milled, the components cannot be seen, the color is darker or lighter, and the high moisture content often leads to deliquescence, mildew, moth-eaten, lumpy, sometimes mixed with a large amount of sand or a large amount of low-cost feed, such as the amount of shellfish powder in the batch reaches 20%. If the above phenomenon occurs, it is generally poor quality feed.
Taste identification: You can put a little feed into your mouth to lick and bite, the high-quality feed tastes good, and the inferior feed has a strange taste.
Smell identification: whether the feed has mildew, rancidity, ammonia odor, coke odor, etc., if there is, it is inferior feed.
Tactile identification: Twist the feed with your fingers, and judge the quality of the feed by touching the particle size, hardness, viscosity, etc. of the feed.
Screening and identification
20kg to 90kg of growing-finishing pig feed can all pass through a round-hole sieve with an aperture of 2.5 mm, and the sieve with a 2-mm aperture should not exceed 15% of the material on the sieve. The method of growing and fattening pig feed; the feed of laying hens and broiler chickens over 4 weeks old can pass through a 2.5 mm round-hole sieve, and the sieve of a round-hole sieve with an aperture of 2 mm shall not exceed 15%. By the above method, the particle size of the mixed foreign matter and the raw material can be measured.
The above method is only a general feed identification method. For further identification, the nutrient composition and content of the feed must be tested by instrument analysis and equipment to see if it meets the specified technical indicators.
That is the weight of the feed required for a pound of fish to gain weight. If a pound of fish needs 0.5kg of feed, then the bait coefficient is 1.
A low coefficient means that your feed is good, but the price of your feed is much higher. The bait coefficient for fish farming will not exceed 2, generally 1.2-1.6, but a particularly good feed can be 0.8.
Generally, only plant feeds are called feeds, and these feeds include grasses, various grains, tubers, roots, etc. These feeds can be roughly divided into:
These feeds consist mainly of starch-rich grains, seeds and roots or tubers. Such as various grains, potatoes, wheat, barley, beans, etc. These feeds provide energy mainly through polysaccharides with little protein. They are suitable for ruminants, poultry and pigs, but feeds with too much starch are not suitable for horses.
These feeds consist of oily seeds (rapeseed, soybean, sunflower, peanut, cottonseed), etc. The energy source of these feeds is mainly lipids, so their energy density is higher than that of starchy feeds. These feeds are also lower in protein. Since these oils also have industrial uses, the popularity of such feeds is not high.
The residue left after industrial oil extraction still contains a relatively high oil content. Such slag can also be used as feed, which is especially good for ruminants and is also widely used.
These feeds are mainly straw feed or pellet feed based on “sweet sorghum straw”. The sugar content of sweet sorghum straw is 18%-23%, and the animal palatability is very good.
These feeds are mainly vegetable protein feeds based on protein mulberry. The vegetable protein of protein mulberry reaches 28%-36% and is rich in 18 kinds of amino acids, which is the best raw material to replace imported vegetable protein.
In these feeds, the whole plant is fed, such as grass, corn, grain, etc. These feeds contain a lot of very nutritious carbohydrates. For example, grass mainly contains carbohydrates and 15% to 25% protein, while corn contains more starch (about 20%-40%) and less than 10% protein. Green fodder can be fed fresh or stored after drying. They are more suitable for ruminants, horses and waterfowl. Generally not used to feed pigs.
Green fodder preserved after fermentation is called silage.
In addition to the feeds mentioned above, many other types of feeds can come directly from nature (such as fishmeal) or industrial replicas (such as rice bran, distiller grains, leftovers, etc. Different livestock uses different feeds, but These feeds are especially suitable for ruminants.
Classification by main nutrients
- Compound feed
- concentrated feed
- functional feed
By raw material
Roughage refers to a type of feed with a crude fiber content of more than 18% in dry matter, mainly including hay, straw, agricultural and sideline products, and slag and leaves with a crude fiber content of more than 18% in dry matter.
Green feed refers to a type of feed with a natural moisture content of more than 60%, including grasses, leafy vegetables, non-starchy rhizomes and fruits, aquatic plants, etc. Crude protein and crude fiber content after drying are not considered.
Silage is silage made from fresh natural plant feed and silage with an appropriate amount of bran or other additives, including semi-dry silage with a moisture content of 45% to 55%.
Energy feed refers to a type of feed with a crude fiber content of less than 18% and a crude protein content of less than 20% in dry matter, mainly including cereals, brans, starchy roots, stems, melons and fruits, oils, and grass seeds. tree species, etc.
Protein supplements refer to a class of feeds with a crude fiber content of less than 18% and a crude protein content of more than 20% in dry matter, mainly including vegetable protein feeds, animal protein feeds, and single-cell protein feeds.
Mineral feeds include industrial synthetic or natural single mineral feeds, multi-mineral mixed mineral feeds, and mineral additive premixes with carriers or diluents.
Vitamin feed refers to synthetic or purified single vitamins or multivitamins but does not include natural feeds with a high vitamin content.
Additives refer to various non-nutritive additive raw materials and their formulated products that are used to strengthen the feeding effect and are beneficial to the production and storage of compound feeds. Such as various antibiotics, antioxidants, antifungal agents, binders, colorants, flavor enhancers, and health care and metabolic regulation drugs.
The concept of feeding standards
Feeding standards are based on the experience accumulated in animal husbandry production practice, combined with material and energy metabolism experiments and feeding experiments, to scientifically stipulate the energy that should be given to each animal of different types, genders, ages, physiological states, production purposes and levels every day. And the quantity of various nutrients, this quantity specified for livestock and poultry is called feed standard or called nutrient requirement. The requirements of various nutrients specified in the feeding standards are reflected by the intake of various feeds by livestock and poultry. Therefore, in feeding practice, it is necessary to calculate the mixing ratio of various feeds according to the characteristics, sources, prices and nutrient content of various feeds, that is, to formulate a balanced and full-price ration. Therefore, the feed standards are listed in tabular form. Poultry requirements for various nutrients. For the convenience of use, the feeding standard for livestock and poultry is attached with a table of feed ingredients and nutritional value for livestock. In addition, when necessary, the formula of livestock and poultry bent-type diet can also be attached for reference of practical application.
Because the breeding standard is put forward through scientific experiments and summarizing practice, it has a certain scientific nature and is an important basis for the implementation of scientific animal raising. In the practice of animal husbandry, only the correct application of feeding standards, the rational development and utilization of feed resources, the formulation of scientific feed formulas, and the production of full-price and combined feed, so that livestock and poultry can obtain sufficient amounts of nutrients, and scientific feeding can be achieved. Under the premise of ensuring the health of livestock and poultry, it can give full play to its production performance, improve feed utilization, and reduce production costs. In addition, feeding standards are also a technical guideline, which is an indispensable basis for formulating feeding quotas, feed production and supply plans for livestock farms. Therefore, feeding standards play a very important role in livestock and poultry breeding practices and formula design.
Knowledge of the application of feeding standards
Feeding standards are scientific and representative to a certain extent, but for any kind of feeding standard, it should not be regarded as a dogma. This is because:
The indicators stipulated in the breeding standards are not eternal but are constantly changing. With the development of animal and breeding science, the improvement and improvement of the quality of livestock and poultry varieties, the improvement of production levels, the breeding standards are also changing. It is continually revised, fleshed out and refined.
Feeding standards are biological type standards, which are limited, regional. Therefore, the application should be adjusted appropriately according to the situation of the habitat unit, the feeding effect, and the response of livestock. To keep the feeding standard closer to reality.
The feeding standard is formulated under certain conditions. The quantity of various nutrients it stipulates is based on the average data of many experimental research results. It is only a generalized average and cannot be completely consistent with each group, Therefore, the application must be adapted to local conditions and applied flexibly. It is necessary to consider the ecological environment, technical level, feeding conditions and other conditions of the herd, and deviate from the actual situation.
The feeding standard should be the standard that each head (only) should eat various nutrients per day, but most livestock and poultry are raised in groups, and for the convenience of management, a % or content per kilogram of feed is adopted. Nutrient needs are expressed as kilocalories (kilojoules) of energy per kilogram. In this way, the percentage of nutrients in the compound feed is multiplied by the daily intake to obtain the nutrients required for each day. Since livestock and poultry can self-regulate their energy needs (livestock and poultry feed on energy), they can obtain the same amount of energy by eating food with a certain range of energy levels under the free-feeding method. and other nutrients. Therefore, the dietary energy concentration can vary between 2.6-2.9 Mcal/kg ME in chickens and between 2.9-3.4 Mcal/kg ME in pigs. As long as they are not limited by volume, livestock and poultry can obtain the energy and various nutrients they need every day, but the feed intake varies.
In short, it is necessary to see the scientific nature of the feeding standard and use it as an important basis for scientifically raising livestock to formulate rations, but also to see its relative rationality, flexible application, and scientific experiments and production practice experience. Based on revision, it is increasingly perfect.
Similarly, the scientificity and flexibility of application should also be paid attention to on the feed composition table and its nutritional value. Because although the numbers in the feed sub-table are obtained through scientific analysis, it is not possible to list all the feeds with high nutrient content and low nutrient content in the feed composition table, especially in the commonly used feed composition table. , but only centered numbers are listed. For example, the protein content of corn is in the range of 7%-9%, but most are between 8.2%-8.9%, while the figure listed in the feed composition table is 8.6%. And so on, it’s obvious.
According to the breed, age, growth and development stage and egg production rate of different chickens, refer to the corresponding range of indicators in the breeding standard and combine their actual situation and practical experience to coordinate the diet.
Try to choose the feed that is easily available locally and at a low price. For some feed that is not necessary and not necessary in the local area, it is necessary to strictly select the low-priced and non-adulterated place to buy it, to reduce the cost of feeding food.
In formula ration, the diversification of feed, the complementary effect of nutrients, comprehensive nutrition, and the reduction of the number of high-priced additives should be considered. And pay attention to the selection of fresh, mildew-free, clean and palatable diets with low crude fiber content.
After the combination of diets is completed, the differences in each nutrient composition should be roughly calculated, and the dosage of additives should be considered. It is necessary to prevent waste caused by repeated additions and to maintain sufficient amounts to maintain nutritional balance.
The combination of the diet should be relatively stable. If it changes due to needs, it must be changed slowly. The sudden change of the diet will cause indigestion and affect the growth of the chicken.
Appropriate feeding standards and feed composition table should be selected
You can refer to the existing breeding standards. If there are regional standards, you can use the regional standards. If there is no domestic standard for livestock and poultry breeds, you can also refer to foreign standards, and reflect the growth, development and production performance of livestock and poultry in breeding practice as appropriate. Correction, flexible use.
Diversification of feed is required, attention to feeding palatability and toxic substances
A variety of feeds should be reasonably matched to play the complementary role of various nutrients and improve the utilization rate and nutritional value of the feed.
Control the crude fiber content and pay attention to the total volume of the diet
The dietary fiber should be controlled between 2% and 5% for chickens, 4% for suckling pigs, 8% for growing and finishing pigs, and less than 12% for breeding pigs. A certain amount of dry matter must be contained in the compound feed grain, so that livestock and poultry can not only eat, but also eat enough, and can meet their nutritional needs.
The ration should be of high quality and low price and be competitive in the market
It is necessary to consider user psychology and improve product quality. It is necessary to focus on publicizing economic benefits, with appropriate emphasis on input and output, so that “maintenance” needs to be kept below one-third of the daily nutrient intake.
An ideal diet is a measure of the degree to which maximum productivity is obtained for the lowest value. That is, the value per unit of product is the final determinant of what must be the best diet. Awareness of this enables formulation design to achieve a more ideal situation.
To match a low-cost and high-efficiency diet, the following steps should be followed:
- Identify and enumerate the nutritional requirements or nutrient supply for the animals on which they are fed.
- Determine what feed can be used and find out its nutrient composition and nutritional value in the feed composition table.
- Determine the cost of feed composition to be considered.
- Consider the limitations and limits of the feed used.
- Calculate the most economical feed formula.
There are many kinds of diet combination methods, such as block method, simultaneous equation method, matrix method, trial and error method, computer method (program method). Although sometimes the calculation of each method is confusing, when done correctly, the result is close to providing a formula that economically (minimum cost) provides the right balance of nutrients in the ideal proportions and meets the requirements. But more importantly, it is to obtain the maximum net profit (net profit).
Design of feed formula
When designing a feed formula, first divide the feed into three categories
- Energy feed: corn, bran (secondary flour);
- Protein feed: soybean meal (meal), cottonseed meal, rapeseed meal, fish meal, blood and bone meal, etc.;
- Mineral dimensional supplements: including phosphorus, calcium and amino acids or premix.
Energy feed generally accounts for 50%-70% in the formula of pigs and poultry, protein feed generally accounts for 20%-35% (except for pregnant pigs), and mineral supplementary feed is 3%-12%. The proportions of the three types of feed vary with animal species and different growth stages. The simplest formula is corn + soybean cake (meal) + mineral premix (including health medicine). But the price is high, and it is difficult for ordinary producers to adopt. If you want to reduce the cost of feed, you can use the cheap bran and secondary flour commonly used in the local area to replace corn or use cottonseed meal, rapeseed meal, etc. to replace the soybean meal (meal) feed, but the energy concentration and crude protein should be kept to a minimum. content. If artificially synthesized amino acids are to be added to the formula to balance the amino acids in the diet, the crude fiber protein should be reduced by two percent units in the formula to reduce the use of more expensive protein feeds such as soybean cake (meal), fish meal, etc. thereby reducing costs.
Fishmeal free diet recipe
Fish meal is a good protein feed in livestock and poultry diets. It has a high protein level, high methionine content and good palatability, and is very popular among breeders.
However, since the 1980s, due to the rising price of fishmeal, the shortage of imported fishmeal, and the unstable quality of domestic fishmeal, the main problems are: the protein content is very different, it is difficult to distinguish fake adulterated products, and some places are fed with mildew. An excessive fish meal leads to gizzard erosion or poisoning and salmonellosis, resulting in unnecessary losses. Therefore, currently domestic and some major breeding farms are avoiding the use of fishmeal.
The main source of protein for the formulation of fishmeal-free diets is soybean meal (meal). If soy meal (meal) is used to replace fish meal, the following issues should be noted:
- The urease activity in soybean cake (meal) should meet the feeding standard (<0.5).
- Maintain the original level of protein in the formula.
- Appropriately add methionine and lysine when necessary to make up for the lack of essential amino acids.
- The price of all ingredients is lower than when using fish meal.
Feed formulation with available (effective) amino acids
As we all know, the protein nutrition of pigs is essentially the nutrition of amino acids. Therefore, attention should be paid to the balance of amino acids in the preparation of feed. However, it is often found that other cakes such as cottonseed meals and rapeseed meals are used to replace common soybean cakes with the same protein content in the feed. (meal) level of feed.
Nutritionists have found that the reason for this problem is mainly due to the great difference in the utilization rate of amino acids from different protein feed sources in animals. Moreover, the utilization rate of various amino acids in the main feed of livestock and poultry has also been determined.
Therefore, some feed mills have begun to formulate feeds with available amino acids (mainly lysine and methionine). Calculate the replacement value of other cakes and soybean cakes (meal) in the diet based on the available amino acids to ensure the stability of the compound feed and the consistency of the effect.
Feed additives and feed premixes
It is a kind of substance that is added in a small amount in livestock and poultry feeds to correct nutritional deficiencies caused by the lack of dietary ingredients or play a special role in the growth of livestock and poultry. In a broad sense, the feed additive cocoa is Divided into four categories: vitamins/trace elements, amino acids and growth and/or benefit promoters.
It is composed of one or more different trace raw materials, such as vitamins, minerals, trace elements or medicines, which are mixed by regenerating, and they do not contain protein feed. Premixes are usually used at or below 1% in the feed.
It is composed of the above premix plus constant calcium and phosphorus. The dosage is generally 1% higher, and the dosage range can vary between 1% and 12%.
It contains protein, trace elements and other additives in a balanced proportion, and is generally added to the feed together with grains and other raw materials.
Full price feed
It must be a feed that contains all nutrients in a balanced proportion and meets the needs of various nutrient components of livestock and poultry.
The purpose of the premix is to safely and accurately add small amounts of trace raw materials such as vitamins, minerals, drugs, antibiotics and other chemicals into the feed. The basic reasons for premixing and offering premixes are as follows:
- Evenly distribute trace raw materials in the final feed;
- Overcome the problem of insufficient weighing and mixing equipment;
- Since the amount of premix used in each ton of feed is kilograms instead of grams, the equipment of ordinary feed mills can be added;
- Since all trace raw materials are already contained in the premix, the trouble of weighing different trace raw materials in the feed factory is avoided;
- Manufacture premix in a specialized factory with special equipment and trained workers, which can serve all feed mills;
- Avoid using trace amounts of raw material inventory in the feed mill;
- Improve the turnover rate of trace raw material inventory;
There are three types of premixes used in the feed mill industry: commercial premixes, in-plant premixes and customer premixes.
The commercial premix is usually produced by a drug or vitamin company with a single and trace amount of raw materials such as vitamins or drugs and a single premix mixed with a carrier. one-step dilution.
In-plant premix refers to a diluted commercial premix or a mixture consisting of a commercial premix plus other trace raw materials and diluents. In-plant premixes are generally produced by feed manufacturers themselves, but sometimes one manufacturer can supply other feed mills.
Customer premix refers to the change from the premix used in the factory. Mixtures of commercial premixes and other trace ingredients and a diluent that meet the specific needs of a feed mill or are called customer premixes.
Lysine is an expensive amino acid that is widely used in swine feed but is lost in large amounts due to improper pelleting and storage processes.
High-quality piglet feed is generally rich in protein, lactose, and sometimes sucrose and glucose. Lysine from protein or added crystals and reducing sugars (as described above) can combine under appropriate moist heat conditions to form indigestible components. Therefore, most piglet feeds are supplemented with higher doses of lysine to compensate for anticipated losses during pelleting and storage.
Weakening of the “Maillard reaction”
Generally speaking, when an amino acid is heated under a certain humidity to undergo a chemical reaction, a “Maillard reaction” occurs. This involves binding free amino groups (like those crystalline amino acids, unlike other amino acids, lysine has 2 such groups) to reducing sugars (like those from lactose and sucrose/dextrose). This “browning” reaction can even occur at room temperature, but the reaction rate is very slow. However, when the browning reaction is excessive (for example, in the case of improper granulation) or is not properly controlled (long storage in an environment with high temperature and humidity), protein quality will decrease.
Heat-sensitive materials that are stored for too long can be affected by this problem, triggering a second “Maillard reaction.” This issue is very important in the management of nursery feeds because conditions in commercial nursery facilities are very favorable for the Maillard reaction. Residual feed moisture also affects the degree of Maillard reaction during storage. For example, milk powder with 10% moisture content stored for 10 weeks in summer will lose 20% of lysine bioavailability. Or, in another study, when piglet feed was kept in a typical nursery for just 7 days, 10% of the total lysine in the feed was destroyed.
In addition, the adverse effects of the Maillard reaction have been demonstrated in many feed ingredients such as soybean meal, fish meal, whey meal, rapeseed meal and peanut meal. While crystalline lysine is the most sensitive amino acid, the rest of the crystalline amino acids in piglet feeds still suffer from the same problem (at lower levels). Therefore, under high temperature and humidity conditions, it will affect the quality of many raw materials.
Fresh suckling pig feed
At the farm level, producing feed for suckling pigs is the safest way to ensure the freshness and safety of the feed, allowing it to be used up before its quality deteriorates. Home mixers also ensure the possibility of small-batch feed production, which can replace a month’s worth of feed purchased at one time.
For farms that cannot prepare piglet feed on-site, purchasing feed from a reputable feed company is an effective way to ensure fresh feed. Still, there are regular laboratory tests to test for “reactive lysine,” one of which is to detect the extent of damage caused by the Maillard reaction. An easy way to do this is to avoid pellets and opt for kibble that has not undergone any heat treatment. In this way, the Maillard reaction in a cycle can be completely avoided.
Therefore, once piglet feed arrives on the farm, all bags should be stored in a low-temperature dry area to maintain their nutrition and flavor.
Feed mix ratio
Contains mainly starch and sugars, which can account for less than 70% of the dietary mix:
- Corn – one of the highest energy feeds in cereal feeds, it can account for 45%-70% of the mixture.
- Bran – good palatability, high protein and phosphorus content, can occupy 5%-30% of the mixture.
- Wheat and barley – due to the high starch and crude fiber content, the dosage should not be too much, which can account for 15%-20% of the mixture, but when using wheat enzymes, it can account for 20%-40% of the mixture.
- Sorghum – the taste is astringent, too much will make the chicken constipated, it can account for about 10% of the mixture.
- Rice bran – often used as an auxiliary material, it should not exceed 8% of the mixture.
This type of feed contains 30%-65% protein, which can account for 5%-30% of the mixture:
- Soybean cake and peanut kernel cake are the best plant protein feeds, with strong palatability and comprehensive nutrition, which can account for 10%-20% of the mixture.
- Cotton kernel cake – due to toxins, the dosage should not be too much, generally not more than 7% of the mixture.
- Fish meal – is the highest quality animal protein feed, which can account for 5%-15% of the mixture. The salt content of the fish meal should be calculated, and the salt content of the fish meal used should not exceed 0.4% of the mixture.
The main supplementary vitamin deficiency can account for less than 30% of the mixture:
- All kinds of fresh green vegetables—the dosage can account for 20%-30% of the mixture.
- Leaves—Acacia, Amorpha and other green leaves can account for 5%-10% of the mixture.
It mainly supplements the lack of minerals in the mixture, which can account for 0.3%-9% of the mixture.
- Bone meal—mainly supplement calcium and phosphorus, which can account for 1%-2.5% of the mixture.
- Shell powder – mainly to supplement the lack of calcium, which can account for 1%-7% of the mixture. It should be used more for laying hens and less for other chickens.
- Salt – mainly to supplement the lack of sodium in the mixture, often accounting for 0.3%-0.4% of the mixture. The salt content of fish meal should also be taken into account.
- Gravel – often added after the chicken is 1 month old, it can improve the utilization rate of the feed, and can account for 0.5%-1% of the mixture.
Use of oils and fats in feed
Through the investigation and statistics of pig farms, we found such a rule: the sub-pigs added with oil feed are well developed and have high disease resistance. In particular, the effect is more pronounced in sub-pigs with lower birth weights. The basic reasons why oils and fats improve feed efficiency are:
- The inherent characteristics of high energy, easy absorption and easy utilization of oil;
- For monogastric animals, oil can provide a large amount of fatty acids, especially essential amino acids, and the oil has high energy content and is easily utilized by animals;
- Fats can improve the energy utilization of other components of the diet. It is reported that the measured value of metabolizable energy of fats and oils is the highest when the addition amount is 5%, and the metabolizable energy value decreases when the addition amount is 10% and 15%.
Types of oils and fats
Oil and fat feed include animal oil and vegetable oil. Animal oil such as lard, tallow, fish oil, etc., has metabolizable energy of more than 33.5MJ per kilogram. Among animal oils, the unsaturated fatty acid content in lard is higher than that in tallow, and fish oil is cheaper but less expensive. Easily rancid and difficult to preserve. Vegetable oils such as rapeseed oil, cottonseed oil, corn oil, etc. have lower metabolizable energy, which is also 29.5MJ per kilogram. Generally speaking, the optimal ratio of fats and oils in sub-pig diets is 10% to 15% in the early stage and 5% to 6% in the later stage. The practice has proved that the mixed application of vegetable oil and animal oil is better than a single application, and the mixed application of vegetable oil and animal oil in a ratio of 1:1 or 2:1 is better. In our daily production, the brine oil in the braised meat shop and the lard as a by-product of the meat joint factory are all high-quality and cheap animal fats. The researchers mixed soybean oil and short-chain saturated coconut oil in the diet of 21-day-old weaned pigs. The experiment found that the pigs fed soybean oil and coconut oil had higher daily gain and feed reward.
The study found that adding 6% animal fat to the diet of weaned pigs increased the daily weight gain by 21.4% within 5 weeks after weaning (P<0.01), and the feed conversion rate was significantly improved.
The experimental results showed that there is an interaction effect of copper and fat in the daily weight gain of weanling pigs. Adding 2.5% to 5% of animal fats to diets high in copper (250 mg/kg) can increase the weight gain of piglets within 2 to 4 weeks after weaning; adding oils and fats to diets containing 5 mg/kg copper does not work.
How to add
Direct addition: Add the fat and oil into the feed evenly in proportion. Because the oil is highly viscous, it must be heated and melted before adding, and then the powder is added from less to more, evenly mixed, and gradually enlarged and diluted. Finally, it is mixed with other parts of the remaining diet. Mix well. Do not add oil, premix and additives at the same time, to avoid the formation of small particles of oil and these additives that will affect the uniformity of the feed. The grease can be added first, and then the additives are added after thorough mixing, or the additives can be added first and then the grease is added after thorough mixing.
Adding high-oil feed after preparation: The crushed corn is prepared into a high-oil feed containing 10% or 20% of oil, and then added in an appropriate amount according to the required proportion of corn and oil to form a full-price feed.
Spray addition: The oil can be sprayed evenly on the surface of the pellet feed with a sprayer. If it is possible to produce pellet feed, 30% of the added oil can also be added to the pellet feed, and the other 70% can be sprayed on the surface of the pellet to improve palatability.
Fats should be boiled before use. One of its functions is to eliminate miscellaneous bacteria and ensure the safety of feed. Second, it is easy to mix.
Pay attention to the balance of nutrients in the diet
After the oil is added, other nutrients in the feed should be adjusted accordingly, especially to keep the protein-energy ratio unchanged, because the energy level in the diet is increased.
Feeding and storage time should not be too long
Excessive storage time or storage at high temperatures is prone to rancidity. Generally speaking, the oily feed should not be stored for more than 7 days in summer and 21 days in winter.
Antioxidants should be added to the feed
Antioxidants can be added in an amount of 200 grams per ton to prevent rancidity.
In the past ten years, with the increase of population and income, the food structure of residents has been greatly improved, and the demand for edible animal products has grown rapidly. Therefore, the consumption of animal food such as meat, eggs, and milk has grown rapidly. It will inevitably lead to an increase in the demand for feed.
Technological Advances and Structural Changes in Livestock Production
We can see that although the consumption of various livestock products has increased rapidly with the increase of population and per capita purchasing power, the consumption of feed grains has not shown the same growth rate. Advances in specialized and centralized feeding techniques, livestock breeding and management have greatly improved feed conversion ratios.
Price and other economic factors
The overall level and type of feed demand are mainly determined by the relationship between the price of livestock products and the price of feed. When the animal price to feed price ratio increases, production becomes profitable, resulting in an expansion of animal product production and an increase in feed consumption. Conversely, when this ratio is low or declining, livestock product production becomes uneconomical and feed demand is limited. Other economic factors refer to technical factors such as changes in feeding efficiency and changes in non-feed production costs that can moderate the impact of price factors and also cause changes in feed demand.
Other non-economic factors
Sometimes certain social or policy factors can also lead to an impact on the economy. Some unexpected social events can often lead to the stagnation or even recession of certain industries, such as the COVID-19 epidemic in early 2020. Since the outbreak and epidemic of the COVID-19 epidemic in the world, it has had a relatively large impact on the breeding industry and the feed industry.