Bean (scientific name: Holboellia latifolia Wall.) is a plant of the genus Augustus in the leguminous family. A family of dicotyledonous plants, both woody and herbaceous plants, such as “red sandalwood”, “locust tree”, “soybean”, “mung bean”, “red bean”, “pea”, “ground peanut”, etc., commonly referred to as beans Plants also refer to the seeds of these plants: legumes, beans, pods (corn beans), soy milk, bean green, boiled beans, burning sesame seeds, eyes like beans.
Fruit of a bean plant. The types of beans include soybeans, broad beans, peas, mung beans, kidney beans, and adzuki beans. Soybeans are divided into different colors: yellow beans, black beans, green beans, etc. Beans can be divided into lentils, kidney beans, concanavalin beans, kidney beans, cowpeas, etc. The colors of adzuki beans are red, yellow, light green, gray, white, and tea.
Shaped like a circle.
An ancient vessel for holding meat or other food, shaped like a stalactite: zudou.
Beans are annual herbs, 30-80 cm high. The main root is as deep as 80 cm in the soil, and the root system is well developed. The stem is erect, cylindrical, multi-branched, and slightly pilose. Pinnate three compound leaves; stipules entire, membranous, a base connected with petiole, apex acuminate, hairy; petiole flat, 6-12 mm long; leaflets are obovate, ovate to oblong-lanceolate, nearly equal in size, 15-40 mm long, 4-15 mm wide, blunt apex, wedge-shaped base, triangular tines on the upper part of the edge, glabrous on the top, sparsely pilose on the bottom, or bald, 5-6 pairs of lateral veins, not Obvious; terminal leaflets with longer petioles.
Flowers sessile, with 1-2 leaf axils, 13-18 mm long; calyx tube-shaped, 7-8 mm long, pilose, calyx teeth lanceolate, cone tip, as long as the calyx; corolla yellow-white Or light yellow, the base is slightly Dongqing, the flag petals are long and obovate, the apex is deeply concave, obviously longer than the Ji petal and the keel petal; the ovary is linear, slightly pilose, style is short, stigma capitate, and ovules are numerous. English fruit cylindric, 7-12 cm long, 4-5 mm in diameter, straight or slightly curved, glabrous or slightly pilose, with a slender beak at the tip, which is about 2 cm long (including the upper sterile part of the ovary) ), the back seam is thickened, the surface has obvious longitudinal nets, and there are 10-20 seeds. The seeds are oblong ovoid, 3-5 mm long and 2-3 mm wide, brown, with uneven surfaces. The flowering period is from April to July, the fruiting period is from July to September.
Soybeans are divided into different colors: yellow beans, black beans, green beans, etc.
Beans can be divided into lentils, kidney beans, concanavalin beans, kidney beans, cowpeas, etc. The colors of adzuki beans are red, yellow, light green, gray, white, teal, and black.
The types of beans include soybeans, broad beans, peas, mung beans, kidney beans, adzuki beans, black beans, and red beans.
Nutritional value function
Function to the body
There are many kinds of beans and they are rich in nutrients. Often eating beans is good for the body. my country’s traditional diet emphasizes that “the grains are suitable for nourishment, while the loss of beans is bad”. It can reduce fat content, increase immunity, and reduce the chance of illness.
Red beans can nourish the heart, diuresis, relieve alcohol, detoxify, and have certain effects on heart disease, kidney disease, and edema. Red beans also have more dietary fiber, which has good effects of moisturizing the intestines, lowering blood pressure, lowering blood fat, regulating blood sugar, anti-cancer, and losing weight.
Mung beans are sweet and cool in taste, have heat-clearing and detoxifying effects, can help the human body to excrete toxins, can lower cholesterol, protect the liver, and resist allergies.
Soybeans can replenish the spleen, promote metabolism, and have an auxiliary dietary therapy effect on diarrhea, abdominal distension and other diseases. It is an ideal food for patients with hypertension, coronary heart disease, arteriosclerosis, obesity, diabetes, etc. It also helps delay aging.
The white kidney bean contains saponins and a variety of globulins, which can improve human immunity and prevent respiratory diseases. Black beans can promote the excretion of toxins from the kidneys, and have a strong effect on nourishing the kidneys, promoting blood circulation and moisturizing the skin.
Experts pointed out that beans contain a lot of phytic acids, which will affect the absorption of trace elements such as iron and zinc. Making beans into bean sprouts will not only greatly reduce the phytic acid content, but also greatly increase the utilization rate of iron, zinc, and calcium so that the five internal organs can get better benefits.
If you use legumes to replace part of animal foods, you can reduce your cholesterol intake, because beans do not contain cholesterol and contain very little saturated fat. In this way, while obtaining protein, can greatly reduce the risk of chronic diseases, which is especially beneficial for middle-aged and elderly people.
There is an important nutrient in beans-lecithin. Lecithin can lower blood cholesterol and reduce the accumulation of fat in the blood, thereby softening blood vessels and regulating blood lipids. The content of lecithin in beans is very high, so eating beans is equivalent to eating healthy products.
In addition, there are some good things in beans, such as cellulose, which is very beneficial to intestinal health.
In addition, it also contains oligosaccharides. “Bifidus factor” can promote the reproduction of beneficial bacteria in the intestinal tract, and the oligosaccharides in beans are typical Bifidus factors. Therefore, eating beans is very good for the intestines and stomach. Beans also contain a lot of minerals, which can maintain the body’s acid-base balance. If you often eat refined white noodles and white rice, your body will become sour. Eating beans can greatly alleviate this situation because beans are more neutral. Therefore, if some beans can be used in the staple food to replace part of the fine grains, then it will be very beneficial to human health.
To lose weight
Eating beans is good for weight loss. If calculated by the same amount of calories, Pacman has the strongest feeling of fullness, and it hasn’t been hungry for a long time. Therefore, eating beans is a good choice for people who want to lose weight.
According to market demand and people’s taste, you should choose lodging resistance, well-developed branches, vigorous growth, short growth period, simple cultivation, concentrated pod formation, high yield, oily green color, and large and full grains; the eating characteristics are easy to be boiled and rotten. Shidou, Anyue oil mung bean and Zhonglu No.1, etc.
Sowing date, sowing amount, density and sowing method: If the woodland is free, the sowing date can be arranged in early April; if there are previous crops, it can be arranged to open the planting box after the spring harvest, and the suitable sowing date must be arranged before the end of May, To preserve the seedlings and obtain high yield.
It is necessary to insist on grabbing moisture from time to time, and planting seeds when the soil is wet after the rain; in case of drought, you can use clean manure water to drench the nest after sowing. Sow seeds within 1 kg per mu, dress the seeds with 10 grams of ammonium molybdate and 10 kg of water per mu (the unused water is used for equipment) and sow after harvesting sweat. The planting specifications are: net cropping 2 meters open box, row spacing 50 cm, nest spacing 40 cm, 3200-3400 nests per mu, 5-6 nests, 2-3 seedlings per nest, 9500 seedlings per mu; fruit forest based on leaving a sufficient distance of 40em from the base of the fruit tree, the box is opened by 2 meters, which is roughly the same as the sowing specifications of the net crop; the intercropping refers to the net crop specifications, and the sowing rate per mu is determined according to the situation.
Base fertilizer application
Generally, 20 kilograms of calcium-magnesium phosphate fertilizer per mu is added with 1,000 kilograms of ash fertilizer or 25 kilograms of plant ash, and then 300 kilograms of sandy loam soil is evenly mixed to cover seeds. The effect of applying 15 kilograms of high-quality bio-organic fertilizer and covering 300 kilograms of sandy loam soil with 15 kilograms of high-quality bio-organic fertilizer is the best.
Check seedlings and makeup seedlings in time to ensure the whole seedlings; fixed seedlings at the 4-leaf stage. In a barren land, 5 kg of ammonium bicarbonate and 1000 kg of clean manure water are used to extract seedlings per mu during the seedling period. At the initial flowering stage, add 40 kg of ammonium molybdate water left during seed dressing to topdress the dorsal roots of the leaves. At the same time, plowing, weeding, and spreading soil should be time before the first flowering period to prevent lodging. Attention should also be paid to the prevention and control of bridge-building insects and leaf rollers.
Harvesting and sun storage
It is harvested in stages and batches in time, usually 2-3 batches. The seed coat of mung bean is easy to absorb moisture and become damp. If the temperature and humidity are high during storage, it is easy to lose the germination rate, and even mildew and deteriorate. Therefore, mung bean seeds should be placed in dry, ventilated, and low-temperature conditions and they can be packed in the sack. Under the condition of 12-14% moisture content, the storage height should not exceed 1 meter; the stacking height should not exceed 6 bags. If the number of seeds is small, they can be stored in jars. Usually, the bottom of the altar is filled with a small amount of quicklime to absorb moisture, and then it is cushioned with a sack, and then the sun-dried and cooled seeds are packed into the altar, and finally, the altar is sealed with a plastic cloth and placed in a dry and cool place.
When planting seeds, chemical fertilizers cannot be used as seed fertilizers, especially nitrogen-containing fertilizers or superphosphate dressings. Don’t sow before the rain. We must resolutely distribute seedlings and fix seedlings in time, and don’t be too greedy to ensure good individual development. The grains should be packed in bamboo utensils and dried gradually from thick to thin. Do not expose them to sand, slate and cement ground to avoid breaking the skin and destroying the protein structure, which will affect the quality of the seeds and the quality of goods. Seed moisture is generally required to drop below 12%. After the mung beans are dried, it is not advisable to put them in the warehouse while they are hot, and they should be put in the warehouse after they have cooled down. Attention should be paid to crop rotation and cropping, as repeated cropping for many years will severely reduce production.